Saturday, March 14, 2020

Definitions of abnormality unit 2 Essays - Abnormal Psychology

Definitions of abnormality unit 2 Essays - Abnormal Psychology 119Abnormality is very difficult to define to decide where normal behaviour ends and where abnormal behaviour begins discuss two or more definitions of abnormality. (12 marks) Another possible way to define abnormality is the failure to function adequately. Most people who seek psychiatric help are suffering from a sense of psychological distress or discomfort. In most societies we have expectations of how people should behave and live their lives. An example where this definition can be applied is when someone is suffering from severe depression, which leads to apathy and inertia, this means the depressed person may fail to even get up in the morning or hold down a job and relationship. Failure to function adequately is a general sign of disorder and not itself specific to any condition. Rosenham and Seligman suggest that the most suitable approach to defining mental abnormality may be to identify a set of seven abnormal characteristics consisting of suffering, maladaptiveness, vividness and unconventionality of behaviour, unpredictability and loss of control, irrationality and incomprehensibility and observes discomfort. It is suggested that the more an individual has these characteristics the more they are classed as abnormal. A second definition for abnormality is the deviation from ideal mental health. This approach unlike the previous one seeks to identify the characteristics people need to be mentally healthy rather than identifying the problems. An example is someone suffering from schizophrenia who often experience hallucinations and delusions, some patients also experience lack of emotional response. Jahoda perceives abnormality in a similar way to the perceptions of ideal mental health and looks for an absence of well-being. She identifies 6 major characteristics that individuals should exhibit in order to be normal. It is the absence of these criteria which indicate abnormality and therefore displaying deviation from ideal mental health. These criteria consist of self attitudes, personal growth, integration, autonomy, perception of reality and environmental mastery. Those who suffer from schizophrenia consequently suffer from an absence of having an accurate perception of reality as well as being unable to empathise with others. This absence indicates a deviation from ideal mental health and thus may classify someone as being abnormal. One problem with Rosenham and Seligmans features is that most of them involve making subjective judgements. This is a significant limitation because behaviour causing severe discomfort to one observer may have no effect on another observer whilst behaviour that violates one persons moral standard is consistent with another persons moral standards. The other problem with the categories is that they also apply to people who are non-conformist and people who simply think differently to the majority of society but are mentally healthy. Therefore there are no clear objective measures of normality or abnormality. This becomes even more difficult when some people are not aware of their failure to function adequately, many people with schizophrenia deny they have any problem. Thus it would make it very difficult to diagnose such a person as schizophrenic whilst going by the failure to function adequately definition. Cultural variations are also a limitation to the FFA approach to abnormality. Standard patterns of behaviour and societal norms and values vary across cultures leading to significant differences in the way people perceive normalcy. What one person may deem abnormal and deviant in one culture may be entirely consistent with another culture this makes it difficult to use the FFA as a definition of abnormality and to use it as an objective tool of measurement for abnormality. In England if a stranger was to start conversing with you in for example a train, most likely they would be thought to be a little abnormal as social norms here dictate that people should keep their distance from others in public transport and in most other places too as the British population value their private space and quiet . However, in many other countries such as The Netherlands it is completely normal and consistent with their societal norms to smile and say good morning and even start a conversation. This shows that in effect if some of these people were to come to Britain and behave the same way they did at home they may be labelled as slightly abnormal so the FFA approach can be very

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

CCCB Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

CCCB - Essay Example (2002) (2009) The Japanese Invasion The late 1950s saw a crucial time for Harley Davidson because that was the time when the Japanese entered into competition in the market. This meant that Harley Davidson was not the only producer for motorcycles now and had to make certain changes in order to survive. Up till now, the company enjoyed a sort of monopoly over its customers because it could produce motorcycles according to the knowledge that it possessed, as customers were willing to purchase due to being left with no other options as well. This played on the demand-supply situation, pushing the company to continue with its sale of making motorcycles that had very distinguished engines, and were manufactured in a manner that they could be rectified by the customer itself. (Statkenov, Daniel K. 1900-1933.) The Japanese established themselves with Honda over the south Asian markets first, and then spread to the rest of the world in such a way that even in the United States of America, e very second person was purchasing a Japanese manufactured motorcycle. Because of this, the sales in Harley Davidson obviously declined because as when compared with companies like Honda, and then emerging Kawasaki, Suzuki and Yamaha, Harley Davidson motorbikes were very costly, could not be afforded by the average consumer, and was not for every kind of bike rider. The Japanese took advantage of all the demerits that the American motorcycle company had, and took hold over it by producing more customer friendly bikes, that could be ridden by most ages, had simple engines, were east to maintain and repair, and most of all, were much lighter and cheaper. As the Japanese slowly took over the markets, at the same time, the profitability and goodwill that Harley Davidson had created for its self began to decline sharply. The company foresaw a great amount of debt and was unable to raise the complete by back price. In order to sustain survival over the market, the only thing that could be done by Harley Davidson was to cut back on the number of bikes manufactured in order to keep their costs at a minimum price. The company was under the leadership and guidance of people like Richard Teerlink and Jeffrey Bluestein as it underwent a complete transformation before it began soaring upwards and towards growth again. These people evaluated the performance of the company against that of not only its past performances but also performance of the Japanese companies and found out where they were going wrong. They critically evaluated the pros and cons that Harley Davidson faced and in accordance to that made the much needed changes within the organization. Transformation The first set of changes that were made within the company in order to stabilize it was in its human resource department. A proper change cycle was what the firm was made to go through as all unnecessary workers and employer positions were eliminated from the company. Having a good hold over the people that wo rk within the company can really make or break its name in the market. Harley Davidson was started by two people and by 1907 had only a single permanent employee working with the founders. However, after the Japanese invasion into the market, Teerlink decided that it

Monday, February 10, 2020

Marketing Ethics and Marketing Success Assignment

Marketing Ethics and Marketing Success - Assignment Example Any such deficiency sooner or later is likely to have a rebound effect on the future success or failure of the business organization. Rigorous application of marketing ethics is therefore essential for any short or long-term success. ‘Ethics are the moral principles and values that govern the actions and decisions of an individual or group’- (www-rohan.sdsu.edu). Whenever a moral dilemma surfaces during the course of some action, ethics provide the guidelines for taking the appropriate decision. They are unlike the law in the pretext that the latter is enforceable in a court of justice while the former is to be practiced conscientiously. Ethical violations can either be intentional or inadvertent (Upshaw, 2005). Intentional violations include conspiracies to defraud, mismanagement for financial gain and cover-ups for illegal actions and the inadvertent violations include regulatory abuse due to ignorance, poor products due to inadequate quality controls and unintended environmental damage (Upshaw, 2005). Historically, in actual situations, however, it has been seen that ethics are sometimes neglected in order to attain short-term gains in the volatile consumer market. Ethical practices have frequently been ignored in order to make immediate profits but proved disastrous in the long term. One such example is that of Pfizer Pharmaceuticals Company which has a worldwide presence but has been known to violate business ethics on numerous occasions. The company is one of the giants in research and development on drugs and has come up with innovative products for human as well animal use. Healthcare ethics have a standard which is unparalleled in any other organization as it directly involves playing with human life. Pfizer has been blamed for launching new drugs without issuing warnings of the side effects associated with their use which could prove fatal in individuals prone to such side effects.  Ã‚  

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Let’s Go to the Beach Essay Example for Free

Let’s Go to the Beach Essay It was summer, last year; in July 15th the hotter day of the season made me took to my young son, my niece, and my mom to the beach. It was noon, when I noticed that my mom to come from Mexico who was visiting me for some months was getting bore at home. Because she loves to be in Mexico, when she visited me I have to do fun thinks to extend her stay with me. Thinking what should I do to make her happy I had a great idea come to me and I told them â€Å"let’s go to the beach†. Without hesitation my mom said â€Å"yes†. I asked my ten years old son and my fourteen years old niece if they could help me to hold her because my mom’s troubles to walk alone. With a very blue sky, hot and yellow sun and the kid’s support with my mom I thought that it would be a perfect day to take my mom to the beach. My mom and I would not expect that going to the beach at a beautiful day, in a blink we will be terrified and involved others to spoil their beautiful day too. Planning to have a perfect day at Seascape Beach Resort, I learn that by my mistake inadvertence the brighter day, would become in a nightmare turning our day in a darkness day. After to invite my family to the beach, quickly I had to package some staff that we need to spend all day at the beach. I gave to my niece some appropriately cloths to go to the beach, my son wore his sandals, short and a light t shirt. Faster, I dressed a short and sandals too but my mom who though that she wont get wet to the beach, she did not want to change her beautiful light green pants and her write blouse that she was wearing. After we changed our clothes, I got four towels, my sunglasses, and a cap. As my purpose was to stay six hours at the beach, I made some sandwiches, water bottlers I cut a sweet watermelon, a cantaloupe, and bananas. Having it, I tough it is all that we need to get fun at the beach. Exited to be at the beach, my mom and the kids were into my car happily where my mom was in the font, my niece and my son on the back sets. Taking the 101 north highway, I drove to the road of the Seascape Beach Resort. While I was driving, we were listening Spanish music to made my mom felt much more relax. Even though the day was hot we were happy because I turned the air condition in and there was not traffic and we laughed, joked each other, and we talked about the beautiful day that we would expected to have. After twenty minutes driving, we arrived to the parking lot As I worked at Seascape Beach Resort for seven years, I knew where I should park my car safety for a long time and how to get to the beach while we can enjoy the scene of the path. Getting out towels and food, I was trying to leave my cell phone in my car, when my mom saw it she told me â€Å"bring it I’ll take care of it, I won’t be wet in the beach. † Easily, she convinced me and she put my cell in her pans packet. Because the hotter day, anxiously my niece and my son wanted to get wet and play with the sand, so they walk faster. Feeling my niece and my son the smell of the beach, they could not wait to touch the cold water. Recently my mom got a total knee replay surgery; she was unable to walk faster as my niece and my son. Taking the path of the beach, they let my mom and me behind. Frequently, I used to take my son at this beach, so they knew the path very well that tis why I allowed them to walk quickly. Whishing this beautiful day for my mom were unforgettable we walked slowly holding my moms hand, enjoying the view through the beachs path. Feeling the freshener of the green threes, getting relax with a beautiful fountains, looking at the flower gardens, and when we were close to the beach we enjoy the smell of the beach. After a few minutes with an enjoyable rode of the beach, we finally were at the beach. Before this day I took my mom to the same beach to watch the waves sitting on the beach’s bench and got refresh because her weakness of her knee. I wanted my mom has a perfect day, pampering her, I said yes for that entire she wanted without though that a nightmare will happen to us. Feeling my mom attracted to the waves and the beachs freshness and the smell of the breeze she asked me if she could get wet her feet. â€Å"Why not†, I said her. Caring my mom shoes in my left hand and my right hand holding her, slowly, we started to walk. Felling the burner sand in our feet, we continued to walk into the wet sand. With a very beautiful blue sky, and fresh waves, my mom feet happy and relax. After, we met with my son and my niece, who were playing with the sand and getting wet with the waves; I told them â€Å"my mom wants her feet get wet, we will be walking right there to the beach†. With Disregard they said â€Å"yes† because they were very busy with the waves. A few minutes ago, still walking under the wet sand, my mom wanted her feet touch the cooler water. Feeling the coolness of the breeze, touching our face and smelling the fragrance of the beach, my mom feet got wet. Two minutes later, walking still slowly under the sand a very small wave was coming to us. Happily, my mom and I, we were waiting the wave. Suddenly, I saw a very big wave coming to us. Immediately, I told my mom: lets go back quickly a big wave is coming towards us†. Even though I want to walk faster, my mom was unable to do because my mom’s knee weakness. Then, the big wave reached us soon. Holding my mom’s hand she, felt down lay at the water. Because my back injured I was incapable to stand up her. Terrify, for a few seconds, and unable to help my mom, I saw some people far of us. Frighten, and desperate because my mom was in danger to be driven for more big waves that were coming to us, I was holding tightly my moms hand; with my other hand I made some signal wishing the American’s family help. Fortunately, they saw my hands signal, so they guest that we need help. Two minutes later, they were coming one by one to help us. First it was just a lady who was trying to stand up by pulling my mom, while I tried to push her, but we could not stand up her. Soon, they were four more people who arrived to get her up. Thankfully to the kindly family help, by my negligence to allow my niece and my son to separate of my mom instead of held them to be close to my mom while she waked I spoiled the beautiful day to this family also. My mom, totally wet and dirty her light green pants and white blouse when her shoes were driven by the waves too, finally, we got my mom up. Immediately, the kindly family called to Seascape beach life guard to be sure that my mom was not injured. Because she was shaking for the tragedy and the cold water friendly, they sat her down in one of their chair that they had, trying to calm down, cleaning and drying, her with their big new towels that they had. Pampering my mom and waiting for the safe guard they frequently, need me, to asked her if she was fine because my mom cannot speak any English word. After twenty minutes of my moms tragedy I remembered that my son and my niece also were there. Still trembling I told the family members that there were two kids with us. Then, my son and my niece were called by one lady of this family witch let they know about my mom tragedy. Generously, around half an hour, my mom was pampering by this family while we were still waiting for the life guard, such us surrounding her, warming, hugging, and trying to make her safe outside the water. A few minutes later, the life guard came to us, when in detail, the family explained to the guy all about my moms accident and telling the guy about my mom’s recently knee surgery. Immediately, her blood pressure, her knee surgery, and everything of my mom were examined by the safe guard. Patiently, they helped her to ride the big truck when she was transported the outside of the beach. They also arranged with the bell men to give us a shuttle to my car because my moms shoes were missing, even though the bell boy was known to me because we were co-workers. Helplessness, how as humans bad things can happened and we cannot help ourselves, so we just ask others for help. Luckily, the generosity of this family save my mom to be browned at the beach, this nightmare taught me that they are some places when should I not take my mom by myself. Even though I have been giving the best care at my home for a long time, with my mom’s back, hip, and knee problems and her seven and eight years old and my back problem it was my big mistake to took her to the beach alone. With our short stance and bad experience at the beach, we back inside my car quite grateful with the American family who save my mom life.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Forestry Management Essay -- essays research papers

Forestry Management in Nova Scotia The Canadian forest sector has been a strong and vital element of national and regional well being. Through the management, harvesting, processing and marketing of timber resources, Canada has developed a reputation of being one of the largest timber resources in the forest industry. However, to maintain this reputation and economic well being there are several issues to address in order to protect and sustain this renewable resource. This paper will focus on the management of the forestry sector, particularly Nova Scotia. It will discuss the initiatives and techniques used of both private wood-lot owners and large industries in developing and implementing a forest management strategy. Nova Scotia is comprised of many forested ecosystems; hardwoods, others with softwoods and some with a mixture of both species. In order to maintain and develop these various ecosystems it is important to know how forest management impacts not only the forest itself but also other ecosystems within. For example, a clear-cut harvest can be compared to the same impact of a forest fire. However, forest fires do not remove everything which clear-cutting does. Recently clear-cutting techniques have changed to benefit Nova Scotia ecosystems by leaving clumps of trees, snags, and strips of forest to provide travel ways for wildlife. Forestry is also investigating other related issues of ecosystem management. To create and maintain the diversity of trees with a region (i.e. Hardwood and softwood), landowners leave several stands of both young and old growth within natural forest stands to enhance the biodiversity and health of the forest site. Normally clearcutting results in the re-pla nting of tree seedlings, however some species (spruce, pine) overpower the growth of the hardwood trees. This minimizes the level of specie diversity among a timber stand. By allowing these older sections of stands to remain aids to the natural growth and development of hardwood species. Also, the wood debris, a remnant of old forest growth is essential to the survival of many forest species and also acts as a recycler of nutrients back into the soil. During forest harvesting it is not always necessary to remove all the wood from the lot. Rotten or older growth can be left to contribute to the nourishment of natural forests. &nb... ... Systems. Government of Canada. 3) Kaufert, Frank H. Forestry and Related Research in North America. 1995. Society of American Foresters. 4) MacAskill, Ken. 1997. Nova Scotia Forest Production Survey. Nova Scotia Natural Resources. Government document. 5) Natural Resources Canada. 1997. Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable forest management in Canada. Canadian Council of forest Ministers. 6) Nova Scotia Cooperation Agreement for Forestry Development. 1994. Nova Scotia's Forest Management Strategy. July 1994. Forestry Canada. 7) Nova Scotia Department of Lands and Forests. 1990. Canada / Nova Scotia Forest Resource Development Agreement 1982-1989 "An Overview." December 13, 1990. Forestry Canada. 8) Nova Scotia Natural Resources. 1997. Toward Sustainable Forestry. Government document. 9) Provincial Forest Practices Improvement Board. 1976. Our Forests. Nova Scotia Forestry Association.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Communication Barrier Essay

Introduction Effective communication is an important facet and skills are essential in all spheres oflife. Communication is effective when the stimulus as initiated and intended by the sender, or source, corresponds closely to the stimulus as it is perceived and responded to by the receiver† (Tubbs and Moss, 2006), state . In nursing, every day we have to face to face with patient, we communicate with different people and different patients, so we must endeavour to give effective communication and also an important to counsel them from the usage of words, speed delivery of words, pitch modulation and body language. Effective communication is an essential component for organisation success, whether it is the interpersonal intra group organisation or external levels. Effective communication wills an increases patients and health outcomes of authority (Barlett, Grayson et al. , 1984), Reduces the risk of complaint and litigation of authority (Beckmam, 1994). Communication barrier is when person sends and receives messages that are distorted by noise , ccur within context,have some effect,and providesome opportunity for feedback. (Joseph Devito (2009). Communication is a conversional process of sending message. Communication is important in our life,personal relationship and anywhere. Identifying the barrier to communication is the first step to improving effective communication. if it is unable to communicate his deep are certain obstacles, try to use body languages to convey an effective communication. Discuss in the appropriate place. There are many ways to makesure memorable communication. Communication barrier is what makes communication complexs,difficult,frustrated are the barriers we put in the way. When we talk, we tend to erect barriers that hinder our ability to communicate. There are five of these types of barriers to effective communication. Physical barriers are easy to spot – doors that are closed, walls that are erected, and distance between people all work against the goal of effective communication. Physical communication takes place such as in office, ward, hospital, cafeteria and a public place. Second communication barrier is emotional barrier can be tough to overcome. By believing in yourself and what you have to say, you will be able to communicate clearly without becoming overly involved in your emotions. In the third barriers are cultural, different cultures, whether they be a societal culture of a race and religions which can hinder developed communication if different cultures clash. In these are common cases, in work situations, identifying a problem and coming up with a highly efficient way to solve it can quickly topple any cultural or institutional barriers. Another barriers are Interpersonal barriers, which what ultimately keep us from reaching out to each other, and opening ourselves up, not just to be heard, but also to hear others, this can be the most difficult area to change. They are unable to form genuine connections with people because they have too many false perceptions blocking the way. Luckily, the cure for this is more communication. By engaging with others, we learn what our actual strengths and weaknesses are. This allows us to put forth our ideas in a clear, straightforward manner. And the last barriers are gender have become less of an issue in recent years, but there is still the possibility for a man to misconstrue the words of a woman. Different gender had tended to form thoughts differently and this must be taken into barrier of both genders when communicating. (Christopher Smith II, 2010). Way of Overcoming these barrier When you send a messages,you intend to communicate meaning,but the message itself doesn’t contain meaning. The meaning exists in your mind and in the mind of your receiver. To understand one another,you and your receiver must share similar meanings for words,gestures, tone of voice and other symbols.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Genome Decoding A Review of Three Articles - 1724 Words

The paper is about choosing one of the latest news and compares the representation of it in different news publications. We have to prefer one of the chosen news sources and then states the reason why this newspaper gave a better version of the covered story among others based on the tendency (context), the information giving, and the supported arguments that this newspaper have. Genome Decoding: A review of three articles on the subject Introduction Genome Decoding is one of the most recent tantalizing scientific discoveries that have recently appeared in the news. Scientists have discovered that the 20,000 genes that do not code for proteins (and were, therefore, originally rated junk) are actually packed with billions of switches that regulate every single aspect of behavior of organs, tissues and cells . The discovery is exciting since implications include the fact that scientists can now devise innovative interventions and treat heretofore resilient and fatal disease. The challenge is explaining and making this discovery attractive to a lay audience that largely fined science boring and abstruse. Three different writers have attempted to do so in three different journals. The first has approached the subject from the perspective of the Encode project that helps researchers identify particular regions of switches that appear to be associated with particular behavior of organs, tissues and cells. The second has addressed the subject by describing the mechanism ofShow MoreRelatedDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 PagesPrinciples of Management, Human Resources, Strategy, and Organizational Behavior that helps you actively study and prepare material for class. Chapter-by-chapter activities, including built-in pretests and posttests, focus on what you need to learn and to review in order to succeed. Visit www.mymanagementlab.com to learn more. DEVELOPING MANAGEMENT SKILLS EIGHTH EDITION David A. Whetten BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY Kim S. Cameron UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Prentice Hall Boston Columbus Indianapolis